Computed Tomography (CT)
Computed tomography (CT) systems use a series of X-ray images to create an image volume dataset with slices that can be manipulated on any plane using advanced visualization software. The section includes computed tomography scanners, CT contrast agents, CT angiography (CTA and CCTA), CT perfusion, spectral CT (dual-source CT), and iterative reconstruction dose reduction software.
Typical CT imaging features for COVID-19. Unenhanced, thin-section axial images of the lungs in a 52-year-old man with a positive RT-PCR (A-D) show bilateral, multifocal rounded (asterisks) and peripheral GGO (arrows) with superimposed interlobular septal thickening and visible intralobular lines (“crazy-paving”). Routine screening CT for diagnosis or exclusion of COVID-19 is currently not recommended by most professional organizations or the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Image courtesy of RSNA
Series CT scans in 35-year-old woman with COVID-19 pneumonia. (a) Scan obtained on illness days 1 showed multiple pure ground-glass opacity (GGO) mainly in right lower lobe. (b) Scan obtained on illness days 5 showed increased extent of GGO and early consolidation. (c) Scan obtained on illness days 11 showed multiple consolidation with almost the same extent. (d) Scan obtained on illness days 15 showed a mixed pattern with a slightly smaller extent, and the perilobular consolidation might suggest the presence of organizing pneumonia. The patient was discharged on illness days 17. Image courtesy of the journal Radiology
Two examples of CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) imaging assessment software. Canon is on the left and GE Healthcare is on the right. Both of these technologies have been around for a few years, but there have been an increasing amount of clinical data from studies showing the accuracy of the technology compared to nuclear imaging, the current stand of care for myocardial perfusion imaging, and cardiac MRI.
Figure 1: Depiction of the fully automated CT biomarkers tools used in this study. (A) Schematic depiction of the automated process for assessing fat, muscle, liver, aortic calcification, and bone from original abdominal CT scan data. (B) Case example in an asymptomatic 52-year-old man undergoing CT for colorectal cancer screening. At the time of CT screening, he had a body-mass index of 27·3 and Framingham risk score of 5% (low risk). However, several CT-based metabolic markers were indicative of underlying disease. Multivariate Cox model prediction based on these three CT-based results put the risk of cardiovascular event at 19% within 2 years, at 40% within 5 years, and at 67% within 10 years, and the risk of death at 4% within 2 years, 11% within 5 years, and 27% within 10 years. At longitudinal clinical follow-up, the patient suffered an acute myocardial infarction 3 years after this initial CT and died 12 years after CT at the age of 64 years. (C) Contrast-enhanced CT performed 7 months before death for minor trauma was interpreted as negative but does show significant progression of vascular calcification, visceral fat, and hepatic steatosis. HU=Hounsfield units.
A chest CT scan of a 79-year-old woman who presented with fever, dry cough, and chest pain for three days. Her husband and daughter-in-law had been recently diagnosed with coronavirus disease. The patient expired 11 days after admission.(Courtesy of Song F, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai, China)
Chest CT images of a 29-year-old man with fever for 6 days. RT-PCR assay for the SARS-CoV-2 using a swab sample was performed on Feb. 5, 2020, with a positive result. (A column) Normal chest CT with axial and coronal planes was obtained at the onset. (B column) Chest CT with axial and coronal planes shows minimal ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lower lung lobes (yellow arrows). (C column) Chest CT with axial and coronal planes shows increased ground-glass opacities (yellow arrowheads). (D column) Chest CT with axial and coronal planes shows the progression of pneumonia with mixed ground-glass opacities and linear opacities in the subpleural area. (E column) Chest CT with axial and coronal planes shows the absorption of both ground-glass opacities and organizing pneumonia. Image courtesy of Radiology
29-year old male with unknown exposure history, presenting with fever and cough, ultimately requiring intensive care unit admission. (a) Axial thin-section non-contrast CT scan shows diffuse bilateral confluent and patchy ground-glass (solid arrows) and consolidative (dashed arrows) pulmonary opacities. (b) The disease in the right middle and lower lobes has a striking peripheral distribution (arrow). Image courtesy of Radiology
Images in a 41-year-old woman who presented with fever and positive polymerase chain reaction assay for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Three representative axial thin-section chest CT images show multifocal ground glass opacities without consolidation. Three-dimensional volume-rendered reconstruction shows the distribution of the ground-glass opacities (arrows). Image courtesy of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)