December 2, 2020 – Automated deep learning analysis of abdominal computed tomography (CT) images produces a more precise measurement of body composition and predicts major cardiovascular events, such as heart...
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Axial FLAIR MR image shows T2 prolongation in bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles (arrows). Findings were associated with restricted diffusion and areas of T1 hypointense signal without enhancement or abnormal susceptibility. Image courtesy of American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS), American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR)
F-18 FES PET images of patients with ER+/PR+/HER2- invasive ductal carcinoma. Left panel: Progressive disease seen at the 8-week time-point in a patient on sequential therapy. Right panel: Stable disease through all 3 time-points, remaining on study therapy for 6.7 months until disease progression on combined vorinostat aromatase inhibitor therapy. Image created by Lanell M Peterson, Research Scientist, University of Washington Medical Oncology, Seattle WA.
Example MR images from paediatric brain tumour patients. This first column shows T1-weighted images following the injection of gadolinium contrast agent. The second column shows T2-weighted images and the final column shows apparent diffusion coefficient maps calculated from diffusion-weighted images. (a–c) are taken from a patient with a Pilocytic Astrocytoma, (d–f) are from a patient with an Ependymoma and (g–i) were acquired from a patient with a Medulloblastoma. Image courtesy of Nature Research Journal
T1 structural images for the two sequences, MPRAGE and MPRAGE+PMC. The top row shows the MPRAGE sequence, while the bottom row shows the images that were generated with the MPRAGE+PMC sequence. Columns represent two different participants, one with minimal head motion (left, Low-Mover) and another with a large quantity of motion (right, High-Mover). Pial and white matter (WM) surface reconstruction from Freesurfer are also shown.
Unhealthy lifestyles, various diseases, stress, and aging can all contribute to an imbalance between the production of ROS and the body's ability to reduce and eliminate them. The resulting excessive levels of ROS cause "oxidative stress". Graphic courtesy of National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology
Bright spots indicate that cancer cells have responded to a one-day challenge with estrogen in this positron emission tomography (PET) scan of a woman with breast cancer. In a small study, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis found that only women whose tumors responded to estrogen challenge benefited from hormone therapy. The findings could help doctors choose the treatments most likely to help their patients. Image courtesy of Farrokh Dehdashti
Kaplan–Meier curves for the high-risk individuals and the ones with low or medium risk according to AI-severity. The threshold to assign individuals into a high-risk group was the 2/3 quantile of the AI-severity score computed for patients of the KB development cohort. a Kaplan–Meier curves were obtained for the 150 leftover KB patients from the development cohort. b Kaplan–Meier curves were obtained for the 135 patients of the IGR validation cohort. p-values for the log-rank test were equal to 4.77e–07 (KB) and 4.00e–12 (IGR). The two terciles used to determine threshold values for low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were equal to 0.187 and 0.375. Diamonds correspond to censoring of patients who were still hospitalized at the time when data ceased to be updated. The bands correspond to the sequence of the 95% confidence intervals of the survival probabilities for each day. KB Kremlin-Bicêtre hospital, IGR Institut Gustave Roussy hospital. Courtesy of Nature Communications.
The four standard views of an individual mammogram were fed into Mirai. The image encoder mapped each view to a vector, and the image aggregator combined the four view vectors into a single vector for the mammogram. In this work, we used a single shared ResNet-18 as an image encoder, and a transformer as our image aggregator. The risk factor predictor module predicted all the risk factors used in the Tyrer-Cuzick model, including age, detailed family history, and hormonal factors, from the mammogram vector. The additive hazard layer combined information from both the image aggregator and risk factors (predicted or given) to predict coherent risk assessments across 5 years (Yr).