Nuclear imaging, also called molecular imaging, includes positron emission computed tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This section includes radiopharmaceuticals and tracers, PET-CT, SPECT-CT, and PET-MRI. Molecular imaging includes the field of nuclear medicine, which uses very small amounts of radioactive materials, or radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat disease.
A, Initial conventional axial CT image shows no noticeable lung damage (within red box) in right upper lobe. B, Electron density spectral CT image obtained at same time as image in A shows lesions (within red box) in right upper lobe. C, Follow-up conventional axial chest CT image obtained 5 days after images in A and B confirm presence of lesions (within red box) in right upper lobe. Image courtesy of the American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS), American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR)
Staging F18FDG PET/CT images of adenocarcinoma in the RUL (right upper lobe) of the lung illustrates the value of Vereos. The primary lesion in the right upper lobe appears in the upper row (PET image is left, CT image is right). A 3 mm synchronous primary or metastatic lesion in the RUL is apparent in the lower row. The precision afforded by Vereos' images provided the basis for the patient to undergo RUL lobectomy instead of thermal ablation of the primary lesion. (Images courtesy of Dr. Jay Kikut and UVMC)
Indeterminate lesion on PET/CT classified by PET/MRI for 53-y-old man with lung cancer. Contrast-enhanced CT (A), PET (B), and fused 18F-FDG PET/CT (C) images are displayed in comparison with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI (D), PET, and fused 18F-FDG PET/MRI (F) images. In CT (A), hyperdense, subcentimeter liver lesion (arrows) in segment VII is suggestive of transient hepatic attenuation difference or small hemangioma. As malignancy cannot be excluded, it needs further investigation. On PET/MRI, lesion is clearly classified as metastasis because of contrast enhancement and tracer uptake due to later acquisition time point. Follow-up CT confirmed diagnosis after 78 d. Images created by Ole Martin, University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty and Benedikt Schaarschmidt, University Hospital Essen.
a) Includes scintigraphy and PET with and without concomitant CT. b) Includes conventional radiography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, fluoroscopy, and radiography performed during radiologic interventions. c) Includes general, cardiothoracic, maxillary, plastic, and orthopedic surgery and neurosurgery. d) Includes allergology, cardiology, geriatrics, general internal medicine, pulmonology, gastroenterology, and rheumatology. Image courtesy of American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS), American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR)
In I-131 cancer therapy, decay events damage sensitive DNA within a tumor cell nucleus, causing catastrophic single and double strand breaks. Clinical use of antibody-delivered Auger emitters could open a window for the targeted destruction of extracellular COVID-19 virions, decreasing the viral load during active infection and potentially easing the disease burden for a patient. View all figures from this study.
Tau (blue) and amyloid (orange) distribution patterns for super-agers, normal-agers and MCI patients, when compared to a group of younger, healthy, cognitively normal, amyloid-negative individuals. Brain projections are depicted at an uncorrected significance level of p < .0001. Color bars represent the respective t-statistic. Image courtesy of Merle C. Hoenig, Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine II - Molecular Organization of the Brain, Research Center Juelich, Juelich, Germany, and Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
PSMA PET/CT accurately detects recurrent prostate cancer in 67-year-old man. 18F-DCFPyL-PSMA PET/CT shows extensive, intensely PSMA-avid local recurrence in prostate (bottom row; solid arrow) in keeping with the known tumor recurrence in the prostate. Right: PET shows extensive, intensely PSMA-avid local recurrence in prostate (top row; solid arrow) and a solitary bone metastasis in left rib 2 (bottom row; dotted arrow). Image courtesy of Ur Metser, et al.
Total-body dynamic 18F-FDG PET imaging with the uEXPLORER scanner allows us to monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of glucose concentration in metastatic tumors in the entire body (a). As compared to a typical clinical standardized uptake value image (b), the parametric image of FDG influx rate (Ki) can achieve higher lesion-to-background (e.g., the liver) contrast. In addition to glucose metabolism imaging by Ki, total-body dynamic PET also enables multiparametric characterization of tumors and organs using additional physiologically important parameters, for example, glucose transport rate K1 (d), across the entire body. Image courtesy of G.B. Wang, M. Parikh, L. Nardo, et al., University of California Davis, Calif.
Representative maximum-intensity projection PET images of a healthy human volunteer injected with 64Cu-NOTA-EB-RGD at 1, 8, and 24 hours after injection. Axial MRI and PET slices of glioblastoma patient injected with 64Cu-NOTA-EB-RGD at different time points after injection. Image courtesy of Jingjing Zhang et al., Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China/ Xiaoyuan Chen et al., Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, NIBIB/NIH, Bethesda, USA
PET/CT imaging showing uptake and retention of 86Y-NM600 (imaging agent) in immunocompetent mice bearing prostate tumors. PET imaging data was employed to estimate tumor dosimetry and prescribe an immunomodulatory 90Y-NM600 (therapy agent) injected activity. Image courtesy of R Hernandez et al., University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI.