News | Neuro Imaging | January 02, 2018

MRI Shows Brain Differences Among ADHD Patients

Study results may help develop classification models to assist diagnosis of ADHD subtypes

MRI Shows Brain Differences Among ADHD Patients

January 2, 2018 — Information from brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) can help identify people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and distinguish among subtypes of the condition, according to a study appearing online in the journal Radiology.

ADHD is a disorder of the brain characterized by periods of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. The disorder affects 5 to 7 percent of children and adolescents worldwide, according to the ADHD Institute. The three primary subtypes of ADHD are predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive, and a combination of inattentive and hyperactive.

While clinical diagnosis and subtyping of ADHD is currently based on reported symptoms, psychoradiology, which applies imaging data analysis to mental health and neurological conditions, has emerged in recent years as a promising tool for helping to clarify diagnoses.

Study co-author Qiyong Gong, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues at West China Hospital of Sichuan University in Chengdu, China, recently introduced an analytical framework for psychoradiology that involves cerebral radiomics — the extraction of a large amount of quantitative information from digital imaging features that can be mined for disease characteristics. Radiomics, combined with other patient characteristics, could improve diagnostic power and help speed appropriate treatment to patients.

“The main aim of the current study was to establish classification models that can assist the psychiatrist or clinical psychologist in diagnosing and subtyping of ADHD based on relevant radiomics signatures,” Gong said.

With the help of his West China Hospital colleagues Huaiqiang Sun, Ph.D., and Ying Chen, M.D., Ph.D., Gong studied 83 children, ranging in age from of 7 to 14, with newly diagnosed and never-treated ADHD. The group included children with the inattentive ADHD subtype and the combined subtype. Researchers compared brain MRI results with those of a control group of 87 healthy, similarly aged children. The researchers used a relatively new feature that allowed them to screen relevant radiomics signatures from more than 3,100 quantitative features extracted from the gray and white matter.

No overall difference was found between ADHD and controls in total brain volume or total gray and white matter volumes. However, differences emerged when the researchers looked at specific regions within the brain. Alterations in the shape of three brain regions (left temporal lobe, bilateral cuneus and areas around left central sulcus) contributed significantly to distinguishing ADHD from typically developing controls.

Within the ADHD population, features involved in the default mode network — a network of brain regions active when an individual is not engaged in a specific task — and the insular cortex — an area with diverse functions related to emotion — significantly contributed to discriminating the ADHD inattentive subtype from the combined subtype.

Overall, the radiomics signatures allowed discrimination of ADHD patients and healthy control children with 74 percent accuracy and discrimination of ADHD inattentive and ADHD combined subtypes with 80 percent accuracy.

“This imaging-based classification model could be an objective adjunct to facilitate better clinical decision making,” Gong said. “Additionally, the present study adds to the developing field of psychoradiology, which seems primed to play a major clinical role in guiding diagnostic and treatment planning decisions in patients with psychiatric disorders.”

The researchers plan to recruit more newly diagnosed ADHD patients to validate the results and learn more about imaging-based classification. They also intend to apply the analytic approach to other mental or neurological disorders and test its feasibility in a clinical environment, where the fully automatic analytic framework can be readily deployed, Gong said.

For more information: www.pubs.rsna.org/journal/radiology

Related Content

Figure 1. Doppler flows in subpleural consolidation shows smoothly dilated branching arteries

Figure 1. Doppler flows in subpleural consolidation shows smoothly dilated branching arteries 

Feature | Radiology Imaging | September 17, 2020 | By Robert Bard, M.D. PC, DABR, FASLM
COVID-19 is routinely studied using...
Ultrasound-guided carpal tunnel release quickly improves hand function and reduces hand discomfort, making the procedure a safe, effective, and less invasive alternative to traditional open or endoscopic surgery

Patients answered three questionnaires (Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [QDASH] and two parts of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire: symptom severity [BCTSQ-SS] and functional status [BCTSQ-FS] scales) assessing the affected wrist's function and discomfort immediately pre-procedure, 2 weeks post-procedure, and at least one year post-procedure. Infographic courtesy of the American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS), American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR)

News | Ultrasound Imaging | September 17, 2020
September 17, 2020 — According to ARRS' American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR),...
HABLE study prioritizes brain imaging and biomarker research among Mexican Americans.

Getty Images

News | PET Imaging | September 14, 2020
September 14, 2020 — To meet the pressing need to better understand the prevalence, progression, and clinical impact
 A cardiac MRI is effective in identifying inflammation of the heart muscle in athletes and can help determine when those who have recovered from COVID-19 can safely return to play in competitive sports, according to a new study by researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.

Getty Images

News | Cardiac Imaging | September 14, 2020
September 14, 2020 — A...
All intensive care unit equipment, including ventilators, pumps, and monitoring devices, as well as the point-of-care magnetic resonance image operator and bedside nurse, remained in the room. All equipment was operational during scanning.

All intensive care unit equipment, including ventilators, pumps, and monitoring devices, as well as the point-of-care magnetic resonance image operator and bedside nurse, remained in the room. All equipment was operational during scanning. Image courtesy of JAMA Neurology

News | Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) | September 11, 2020
September 11, 2020 — A portable, low-field...
Six months after deployment, the no-show rate of the predictive model was 15.9%, compared with 19.3% in the preceding 12-month preintervention period — corresponding to a 17.2% improvement from the baseline no-show rate (p < 0.0001). The no-show rates of contactable and noncontactable patients in the group at high risk of appointment no-shows as predicted by the model were 17.5% and 40.3%, respectively (p < 0.0001).

Weekly outpatient MRI appointment no-show rates for 1 year before (19.3%) and 6 months after (15.9%) implementation of intervention measures in March 2019, as guided by XGBoost prediction model. Squares denote data points. Courtesy of the  American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS), American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR)

News | Artificial Intelligence | September 10, 2020
September 10, 2020 — According to ARRS’
Vantage Galan with Advanced intelligent Clear-IQ Engine (AiCE) provides high-quality images and fast exam times

Coronal orbit images: Left original and right with AiCE.

News | Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) | September 09, 2020
September 9, 2020
UT Dallas study aims to advance thermography for monitoring tumors

Adolfo Lozano, PhD'20, works on a proof-of-concept computer model of the thermal properties of breast cancer. He and other UT Dallas researchers aim to improve digital thermal imaging as a tool for monitoring cancer and its treatment. Image courtesy of The University of Texas at Dallas

News | Breast Imaging | September 09, 2020
September 9, 2020 — ...
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), a technology used to treat localized prostate cancer, has shown adequate control of prostate cancer while avoiding major side effects of surgery or radiation therapy, according to a new study in The Journal of Urology, Official Journal of the American Urological Association

Getty Images

News | Prostate Cancer | September 08, 2020
September 8, 2020 — Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015 for prostate tissue ablation, the h