News | January 28, 2015

Study of Former NFL Players Reveals Specifics of Concussive Brain Damage

Results of PET/MRI study support calls for better player protections

NFL, brain, study, concussions, damage, nuclear imaging, PET, MRI

January 28, 2015 — A team of Johns Hopkins specialists, using a battery of imaging and cognitive tests, has gathered evidence of accumulated brain damage that could be linked to specific memory deficits in former National Football League (NFL) players experienced decades after they stopped playing the game. Results were published in the February 2015 issue of the journal Neurobiology of Disease

Results of the small study of nine men provide further evidence for potential long-term neurological risk to football players who sustain repeated concussions and support calls for better player protections.

"We're hoping that our findings are going to further inform the game," says Jennifer Coughlin, M.D., assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "That may mean individuals are able to make more educated decisions about whether they're susceptible to brain injury, advise how helmets are structured or inform guidelines for the game to better protect players."

Several anecdotal accounts and studies have suggested that athletes, such as collegiate and professional football, hockey and soccer players exposed to repeat concussions could suffer permanent brain damage and deficits from these events. However, the mechanism of damage and the source of these deficits have been unclear.

To reveal them, Coughlin; Yuchuan Wang, Ph.D., assistant professor of radiology and radiological science at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; and their colleagues used tests to directly detect deficits and to quantify localized molecular differences between the brains of former players and healthy people who didn't play football.

The researchers recruited nine former NFL players who retired decades ago and ranged in age from 57 to 74. The men had played a variety of team positions and had a wide range of self-reported, historical concussions, varying from none for a running back to 40 for a defensive tackle. The researchers also recruited nine age-matched "controls" — healthy individuals who had no reason to suspect they had brain injuries.

Each of the volunteers underwent a positron emission tomography (PET) scan, a test in which an injected radioactive chemical binds to a specific biological molecule, allowing researchers to physically see and measure its presence throughout the body. In this case, the research team focused on the translocator protein, which signals the degree of damage and repair in the brain. While healthy individuals have low levels of this protein spread throughout the brain, those with brain injuries tend to have concentrated zones with high levels of translocator protein wherever an injury has occurred.

The volunteers also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs), which allowed the researchers to match up the PET scan findings with anatomical locations in the volunteers' brains and check for structural abnormalities. In addition, they took a battery of memory tests.

While the control volunteers' tests showed no evidence of brain damage, PET scans showed that on average, the group of former NFL players had evidence of brain injury in several temporal medial lobe regions, including the amygdala, a region that plays a significant role in regulating mood. Imaging also identified injuries in many players' supramarginal gyrus, an area linked to verbal memory.

While the hippocampus, an area that plays a role in several aspects of memory, didn't show evidence of damage in the PET scans, MRIs of the former players' brains showed atrophy of the right-side hippocampus, suggesting that this region may have shrunk in size due to previous damage.

Additionally, many of the NFL players scored low on memory testing, particularly in tests of verbal learning and memory.

Though the researchers emphasize that this pilot study is small in size, they say that the evidence among just nine former NFL players suggests that there are molecular and structural changes in specific brain regions of athletes who have a history of repetitive hits to the head, even many years after they've left active play.

The researchers are currently looking for translocator protein hotspots in both active and recently retired players to help determine whether these changes develop close to the time of play or whether they're a result of a more delayed response to injury with similarities to other degenerative brain disorders.

If these findings are seen in studies with larger numbers of participants, they say, use of this molecular brain imaging technique could eventually lead to changes in the way players are treated after experiencing concussion or how contact sports are played.

For more information: www.journals.elsevier.com/neurobiology-of-disease

Related Content

Siemens Healthineers Announces FDA Clearance of syngo.via VB30 Molecular Imaging Software
Technology | Nuclear Imaging | July 16, 2018
At the 2018 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI), June 23-26 in Philadelphia...
SNMMI Image of the Year Highlights Theranostic Approach for Advanced Prostate Cancer

IMAGE OF THE YEAR: PSMA PET before and after lutetium-177 PSMA617 theranostics in 8 patients with metastatic prostate cancer who exhausted standard therapeutic options.

68Ga-PSMA11 PET maximum intensity projection (MIP) images at baseline and 3 months after 177Lu-PSMA617 in 8 patients with PSA decline ≥ 98 percent in a prospective phase II study. Any disease with SUV over 3 is in red. Credit: Michael Hofman, John Violet, Shahneen Sandhu, Justin Ferdinandus, Amir Iravani, Grace Kong, Aravind Ravi Kumar, Tim Akhurst, Sue Ping Thang, Price Jackson, Mark Scalzo, Scott Williams and Rodney Hicks, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

News | PET Imaging | June 29, 2018
In the battle against metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer, studies have demonstrated a high response rate to...
MILabs Introduces Futuristic PET Capabilities on New VECTor6 System
Technology | PET Imaging | June 28, 2018
At the 2018 Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) annual meeting, June 23-26, in Philadelphia,...
Philips North America and GE Healthcare Win IMV PET Imaging ServiceTrak Awards
News | PET Imaging | June 25, 2018
IMV, part of the Science and Medicine Group and a market research and business intelligence provider to the imaging...
New ASNC SPECT Imaging Guideline Addresses Advances in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging
News | SPECT Imaging | June 21, 2018
The American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) has published an update to its 2010 guidelines for single photon...
FDA Clears New Imaging Functionalities for Biograph mCT PET/CT Systems
Technology | PET-CT | June 21, 2018
Siemens Healthineers will announce U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance of four new system features for...
PET/CT Changes Care for 59 Percent of Suspected Recurrent Prostate Cancer Cases
News | Prostate Cancer | June 13, 2018
A recently presented investigational clinical trial evaluated the impact of 18F fluciclovine positron emission...
Nuclear imaging scan showing very good tissue delineation. Scan performed on a Biograph Vision positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) system from Siemens Healthineers.

Nuclear imaging scan showing very good tissue delineation. It offers crisp overall image quality and sharply delineates the muscle and fat planes, vertebral margins and end plates, billiary radicals, renal calyces, aortic wall and papillary muscles of the heart. Scan performed on a Biograph Vision positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) system from Siemens Healthineers.

Technology | PET-CT | June 05, 2018
June 5, 2018 — The U.S.
Emerging Trends in Nuclear Medicine
Feature | Nuclear Imaging | June 04, 2018 | By Jeff Zagoudis
Nuclear imaging and its various modalities have long played an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of numer
Overlay Init