News | February 11, 2009

MRI Reveals Brain Atrophy Pattern Predicts Alzheimer’s

February 11, 2009 - Researchers used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify a pattern of regional brain atrophy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that indicates a greater likelihood of progression to Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the online edition of Radiology.

"Previously, this pattern has been observed only after a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer’s disease," said the study's lead author, Linda K. McEvoy, Ph.D., assistant project scientist in the department of radiology at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine in La Jolla. "Our results show that some individuals with MCI have the atrophy pattern characteristic of mild Alzheimer's disease, and these people are at higher risk of experiencing a faster rate of brain degeneration and a faster decline to dementia than individuals with MCI who do not show that atrophy pattern."

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, more than five million Americans currently have Alzheimer’s disease. One of the goals of modern neuroimaging is to help in early and accurate diagnosis, which can be challenging. There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but when it is diagnosed early, drug treatment may help improve or stabilize patient symptoms.

In Alzheimer’s disease, nerve cell death and tissue loss cause areas of the brain to atrophy. Structural MRI allows radiologists to visualize subtle anatomic changes in the brain that signal atrophy. MCI is associated with an increased risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease. Rates of progression vary. Some patients progress rapidly, while others remain stable for relatively long periods of time.

For the study, McEvoy and colleagues set out to determine if they could identify a pattern of regional atrophy characteristic of mild Alzheimer's disease in order to aid in the prediction of cognitive decline in patients with MCI.

In the study, the researchers analyzed brain MR images from 84 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, 175 patients with MCI and 139 healthy controls, using with semi-automated, individually specific quantitative MRI methods. The results showed widespread cortical atrophy in some patients with MCI, involving all cortical areas except those involved with processing of primary motor and sensory information. However, most indicative of future cognitive decline were atrophy in parts of the medial and lateral temporal lobes and in the frontal lobes. This pattern was also present in the patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.

"Although these individuals are reporting problems mainly with memory, the atrophy involves more than just memory areas, extending into brain regions involved in planning, organization, problem solving and language," McEvoy said.

Follow-up data were available for 160 patients with MCI. The patients exhibiting atrophy in the brain regions described above showed significant one-year clinical decline and structural brain loss and were more likely to progress to a probable diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. MCI patients without that pattern of atrophy remained stable after a year.

“Currently there are no treatments that will prevent or cure Alzheimer's disease, but information about risk of rapid decline may help patients with MCI and their families plan for the future,” McEvoy said.

Source: Radiology.

"Alzheimer Disease: Quantitative Structural Neuroimaging for Detection and Prediction of Clinical and Structural Changes in Mild Cognitive Impairment." Collaborating with Dr. McEvoy were Christine Fennema-Notestine, Ph.D., J. Cooper Roddey, Ph.D., Donald J. Hagler, Jr., Ph.D., Dominic Holland, Ph.D., David S. Karow, M.D., Christopher J. Pung, B.A., James B. Brewer, M.D., Ph.D., and Anders M. Dale, Ph.D. Journal attribution requested.

For more information: www.rsna.org/radiologyjnl

Related Content

 Many patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unresponsive after surviving critical illness. Investigators led by a team at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) now describe a patient with severe COVID-19 who, despite prolonged unresponsiveness and structural brain abnormalities, demonstrated functionally intact brain connections and weeks later he recovered the ability to follow commands

Getty Images

News | Coronavirus (COVID-19) | July 08, 2020
July 8, 2020 — Many patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (...
A patient implanted with the Axonics System can undergo MRI examinations safely with radio frequency (RF) Transmit Body or Head Coil under the conditions outlined in the Axonics MRI Conditional Guidelines.

A patient implanted with the Axonics System can undergo MRI examinations safely with radio frequency (RF) Transmit Body or Head Coil under the conditions outlined in the Axonics MRI Conditional Guidelines.

News | Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) | July 02, 2020
July 2, 2020 — Axonics Modulation Technologies, Inc., a medical technology company that has developed and is commerci
This data represents wave 2 of a QuickPoLL survey conducted in partnership with an imagePRO panel created by The MarkeTech Group (TMTG), regarding the effects of COVID-19 on their business

Getty Images

Feature | Coronavirus (COVID-19) | July 01, 2020 | By Melinda Taschetta-Millane
Researchers reviewed results of prostate biopsies on over 3,400 men who had targets identified on prostate MRI and found that the positive predictive value of the test for prostate cancer was highly variable at different sites
News | Prostate Cancer | July 01, 2020
July 1, 2020 — Prostate MRI is an emerging technology used to identify and guide treatment for...
R2* maps of healthy control participants and participants with Alzheimer disease. R2* maps are windowed between 10 and 50 sec21. Differences in iron concentration in basal ganglia are too small to allow visual separation between patients with Alzheimer disease and control participants, and iron levels strongly depend on anatomic structure and subject age. Image courtesy of Radiological Society of North America

R2* maps of healthy control participants and participants with Alzheimer disease. R2* maps are windowed between 10 and 50 sec21. Differences in iron concentration in basal ganglia are too small to allow visual separation between patients with Alzheimer disease and control participants, and iron levels strongly depend on anatomic structure and subject age. Image courtesy of Radiological Society of North America

News | Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) | July 01, 2020
July 1, 2020 — Researchers using magnetic...
In new QuickPoLL survey on imaging during the pandemic, responses were tallied from around 170 radiology administrators and business managers, who are part of an imagePRO panel created by The MarkeTech Group (TMTG), regarding the effects of COVID-19 on their business. TMTG is a research firm specializing in the medical device, healthcare and pharmaceutical industries.
Feature | Coronavirus (COVID-19) | June 30, 2020 | By Melinda Taschetta-Millane
Cardiac MR can offer data above and beyond anatomical imaging, which is the main reason why this system was installed at Baylor Scott White Heart Hospital in Dallas. The system is a dedicated heart MRI scanner.

Cardiac MR can offer data above and beyond anatomical imaging, which is the main reason why this system was installed at Baylor Scott White Heart Hospital in Dallas. The system is a dedicated heart MRI scanner.

News | Pediatric Imaging | June 29, 2020
June 29, 2020 — A type of smart magnetic r...
This image of DCE-MRI reveals persistent blood brain barrier disorder in American football players. Using brain imaging techniques and analytical methods, researchers can determine whether football players have CTE by measuring leakage of the blood-brain barrier. Image courtesy of Ben-Gurion University

This image of DCE-MRI reveals persistent blood brain barrier disorder in American football players. Using brain imaging techniques and analytical methods, researchers can determine whether football players have CTE by measuring leakage of the blood-brain barrier. Image courtesy of Ben-Gurion University

News | Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) | June 22, 2020
June 22, 2020 — Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative disease caused by repeated...
Axial FLAIR in four different COVID-19 patients. A) 58-year old man with impaired consciousness: FLAIR hyperintensities located in the left medial temporal lobe. B) 66-year old man with impaired consciousness: FLAIR ovoid hyperintense lesion located in the central part of the splenium of the corpus callosum. C) 71-year old woman with pathological wakefulness after sedation: extensive and confluent supratentorial white matter FLAIR hyperintensities (arrows). Association with leptomeningeal enhancement (stars

Axial FLAIR in four different COVID-19 patients. A) 58-year old man with impaired consciousness: FLAIR hyperintensities located in the left medial temporal lobe. B) 66-year old man with impaired consciousness: FLAIR ovoid hyperintense lesion located in the central part of the splenium of the corpus callosum. C) 71-year old woman with pathological wakefulness after sedation: extensive and confluent supratentorial white matter FLAIR hyperintensities (arrows). Association with leptomeningeal enhancement (stars) D) 61-year old man with confusion: hyperintense lesions involving both middle cerebellar peduncles. Image courtesy of the journal Radiology

News | Coronavirus (COVID-19) | June 16, 2020
June 16, 2020 — Current data on central nervous system (CNS) involvement in...