News | Neuro Imaging | February 08, 2017

Imaging Links Structural Brain Changes and Cognitive Decline in Parkinson's

MRI study reveals that cognitive impairment is likely due to disruption of complex structural brain networks, not degeneration of individual white matter bundles

Parkinson's disease, structural brain changes, mild cognitive impairment, MCI, Radiology study, MRI

February 8, 2017 — People with Parkinson’s disease and cognitive impairment have disruptions in their brain networks that can be seen on a type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), according to a study appearing online in the journal Radiology.

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremors or trembling and stiffness in the limbs, impaired balance and coordination. It affects about 10 million people worldwide. As PD progresses, many patients develop mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a decline in cognitive abilities, including thinking, memory and language. MCI can be identified in approximately 25 percent of newly diagnosed PD patients, and patients with MCI progress to dementia more frequently than those with normal cognitive performance.

For the new study, lead investigator Massimo Filippi, M.D., from the Neuroimaging Research Unit at San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan, Italy, coauthors Federica Agosta, M.D., Ph.D., and Sebastiano Galantucci, M.D., and other colleagues used an MRI technique called diffusion tractography to look for differences in the neural networks of PD patients with and without MCI.

Increasingly, the human brain is understood as an integrated network, or connectome, that has both a structural and functional component. By applying an analytical tool called graph analysis to the imaging results, researchers can measure the relationships among highly connected and complex data like the network of connections in the human brain.

“Cognitive impairment in PD is one of the major non-motor complications of the disease, as well as one of the major concerns of patients and caregivers at the time of diagnosis,” Agosta said. “Study of the changes related to cognitive impairment in PD is imperative in order to be able to answer patients’ questions and finally be able to predict the future development of this condition.”

The study group was made up of 170 PD patients, including 54 with MCI and 116 without, and 41 healthy controls. Analysis of imaging results showed that only PD patients with MCI had significant alterations at the brain network level. Measurements of the movement and diffusion of water in the brain, an indicator of the condition of the brain’s signal-carrying white matter, differentiated PD patients with MCI from healthy controls and non-MCI PD patients with a good accuracy. Researchers said the results show that cognitive impairment in PD is likely the consequence of a disruption of complex structural brain networks rather than degeneration of individual white matter bundles.

The results may offer markers to differentiate PD patients with and without cognitive deficits, according to Agosta.

“If confirmed and replicated by other studies, these results would suggest the use of MRI in PD to support the clinicians in monitoring the disease and predicting the occurrence of cognitive complications,” she said.

The researchers have obtained resting state functional MRI data from the patients and plan to study the functional connectome alterations associated with cognitive impairment in PD and how structural and functional abnormalities are interrelated.

The study is part of an international collaboration between the San Raffaele Scientific Institute and the Clinic of Neurology at the University of Belgrade in Belgrade, Serbia, led by Vladimir Kostic, M.D.

For more information: www.pubs.rsna.org/journal/radiology

References

Galantucci, S., Agosta, F., Stefanova, E., Basaia, S., et al. "Structural Brain Connectome and Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson Disease," Radiology. Published online Dec. 7, 2016. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2016160274

Related Content

Bay Labs and Northwestern Medicine Enroll First Patient in AI Echocardiography Study
News | Cardiovascular Ultrasound | November 19, 2018
Medical artificial intelligence (AI) company Bay Labs and Northwestern Medicine announced that the first patient has...
Immune Inflammatory Levels Linked to Disease-Free Survival in Prostate Cancer
News | Prostate Cancer | November 19, 2018
Data from a validation study of a high-risk prostate cancer trial suggests that higher levels of pretreatment...
Canon Medical Receives FDA Clearance for Vantage Orian 1.5T MRI
Technology | Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) | November 15, 2018
Canon Medical Systems USA Inc. received 510(k) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on its new...
Life Image and Mendel.ai Bringing Artificial Intelligence to Clinical Trial Development
News | Artificial Intelligence | November 15, 2018
Life Image and Mendel.ai announced a new strategic partnership that will facilitate the adoption and enhancement of...
Artificial Intelligence Predicts Alzheimer's Years Before Diagnosis
News | Neuro Imaging | November 14, 2018
Artificial intelligence (AI) technology improves the ability of brain imaging to predict Alzheimer’s disease, according...
Researchers Awarded 2018 Canon Medical Systems USA/RSNA Research Grants
News | Radiology Imaging | November 13, 2018
The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Research & Education (R&E) Foundation recently announced the...
Subtle Medical Showcases Artificial Intelligence for PET, MRI Scans at RSNA 2018
News | Artificial Intelligence | November 13, 2018
At the 2018 Radiological Society of North America annual meeting (RSNA 2018), Nov. 25-30 in Chicago, Subtle Medical...
MaxQ AI Receives FDA Clearance for Accipio Ix Intracranial Hemorrhage Platform
Technology | Artificial Intelligence | November 07, 2018
MaxQ AI announced that its Accipio Ix intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) detection software has received 510(k) clearance...
This is the Siemens Magnetom Sola RT edition 1.5T MRI system optimized for radiation therapy displayed for the first time since gaining FDA clearance in 2018. It was displayed at the American Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ASTRO) 2018 annual meeting. Read more about this system at ASTRO 2018. #ASTRO18 #ASTRO2018
360 Photos | 360 View Photos | November 07, 2018
This is the Siemens Magnetom Sola RT edition 1.5T MRI system optimized for...