News | Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) | August 21, 2019

Vaping Impairs Vascular Function

Multi-parametric MRI reveals 34 percent reduction in flow-mediate dilation in the femoral artery

Vaping Impairs Vascular Function

Image courtesy of the American Heart Association

August 21, 2019 — Inhaling a vaporized liquid solution through an e-cigarette, otherwise known as vaping, immediately impacts vascular function even when the solution does not include nicotine, according to the results of a new study published in Radiology.

E-cigarette use is on the rise. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 9 million adults in the U.S. use e-cigarettes, and vaping has become especially popular among teens. The 2018 National Youth Tobacco Survey reported that in 2018 more than 3.6 million middle and high school students were using e-cigarettes.

“The use of e-cigarettes is a current public health issue because of widespread use, especially among teenagers, and the fact that the devices are advertised as safe despite uncertainty about the effects of long-term use,” said Alessandra Caporale, Ph.D., a post-doctoral researcher in the Laboratory for Structural, Physiologic and Functional Imaging (LSPFI) directed by senior author and principal investigator of the study, Felix W. Wehrli, Ph.D., at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine in Philadelphia. The research was funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI).

According to the authors, e-cigarette inhalants, upon vaporization of the e-cigarette solution, contain potentially harmful toxic substances. Once inhaled, these particles can reach the alveoli of the lung, from where they are taken up by the blood vessels, thereby interfering with vascular function and promoting inflammation.

To study the acute effects of vaping on systemic vascular function, the researchers performed a series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams on 31 healthy non-smoking young adults (mean age 24; 14 women) before and after nicotine-free e-cigarette inhalation. The e-cigarette liquid contained pharma-grade propylene glycol and glycerol with flavoring, but no nicotine.

Using novel multi-parametric MRI protocols developed by Michael C. Langham, Ph.D., one of the co-authors of the study, scans of the femoral artery in the leg, the aorta and brain were performed before and after a single vaping episode equivalent to smoking a single conventional cigarette. For the femoral artery MRI, blood flow in the upper leg was constricted using a cuff and then released; the brain MRI was conducted in the sagittal sinus, during a series of thirty-second breath holds and normal breathing.

Comparing the pre- and post-MRI data, the single episode of vaping resulted in reduced blood flow and impaired vascular reactivity in the femoral artery, in which a 34 percent reduction in flow-mediated dilation—or the dilation of an artery mediated by blood flow increase – was found. There was a 17.5 percent reduction in peak flow, a 25.8 percent reduction in blood acceleration.

These findings suggest impaired function of the endothelium (inner lining of blood vessels). Moreover, a 20 percent reduction in venous oxygen saturation is indicative of altered microvascular function. The researchers also found a three percent increase in aortic pulse-wave velocity, a measure of arterial stiffness, or the rate at which pressure waves move down the aorta.

“These products are advertised as not harmful, and many e-cigarette users are convinced that they are just inhaling water vapor,” Caporale said. “But the solvents, flavorings and additives in the liquid base, after vaporization, expose users to multiple insults to the respiratory tract and blood vessels.”

Caporale said further studies are needed to address the potentially adverse long-term effects of vaping on vascular health.

For more information: www.pubs.rsna.org/journal/radiology

 

Reference

1.  Caporale A., Langham M.C., Guo W., et al. Acute Effects of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Inhalation on Vascular Function Detected at Quantitative MRI. Radiology, published online Aug. 20, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2019190562

Related Content

Radiation After Immunotherapy Improves Progression-free Survival for Some Metastatic Lung Cancer Patients
News | Lung Cancer | September 18, 2019
Adding precisely aimed, escalated doses of radiation after patients no longer respond to immunotherapy reinvigorates...
Noninvasive Radioablation Offers Long-term Benefits to High-risk Heart Arrhythmia Patients
News | Radiation Therapy | September 17, 2019
September 17, 2019 — Treating high-risk heart patients with a single, high dose of...
Long-term Hormone Therapy Increases Mortality Risk for Low-PSA Men After Prostate Surgery
News | Prostate Cancer | September 16, 2019
Secondary analysis of a recent clinical trial that changed the standard of care for men with recurring prostate cancer...
Imaging Biometrics and Medical College of Wisconsin Awarded NIH Grant
News | Neuro Imaging | September 09, 2019
Imaging Biometrics LLC (IB), in collaboration with the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW), has received a $2.75 million...
ASNC Announces Multisocietal Cardiac Amyloidosis Imaging Consensus
News | Cardiac Imaging | September 09, 2019
September 9, 2019 — The American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) published a new expert consensus document along
AJR Publishes Gender Affirmation Surgery Primer for Radiologists. transgender radiology images,

Scout image from contrast-enhanced CT shows erectile implant; stainless steel and silicone anchors (arrow) transfixed to pubic bone are asymmetric.

News | Orthopedic Imaging | September 05, 2019
September 5, 2019 — An ahead-of-print article published in the December issue of the American Journal of Roentgen
Neurological Brain Markers Might Detect Risk for Psychotic Disorders

Researchers at the University of Missouri used MRI scans similar to this photo to find neurological markers in the human brain. These markers can be used to detect people at risk for developing psychotic disorders and to understand when this risk has been successfully treated. Image courtesy of Marquette University/John Kerns.

News | Neuro Imaging | September 04, 2019
Help may be on the way for people who might lose contact with reality through a psychotic disorder, such as...
Medical Imaging Rates Continue to Rise Despite Push to Reduce Their Use
News | Radiology Imaging | September 03, 2019
Despite a broad campaign among physician groups to reduce the amount of medical imaging, use rates of various scans...
News | Contrast Media | September 03, 2019
Researchers in South Korea have found that patients with family and personal history of allergic reactions to contrast...
High-capacity MRI Scanner Approvals Boosting Innovations in MRI-safe Pulse Oximeters
News | Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) | August 29, 2019
A notable increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases has led to a surge in sales of high-end diagnostic machines,...